Job satisfaction is one of the major interests to the field of organisational behaviour and the practice of HRM. It reflects employees’ attitudes toward their job and commitment to an organisation.
Six sutras to gauge job satisfaction
What is job satisfaction? It can be defined as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction is a result of employees’ perception of what organisations provide.
First, job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. It cannot be seen, only inferred.
Second, it is often determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations. For example, if organisational members feel that they are working harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards, they will probably have a negative attitude toward the work, the boss, and co-workers. They will be dissatisfied. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated well and being paid well, they are likely to have a positive attitude towards the job. They will be satisfied.
Third, job satisfaction represents several related attitudes. Scholars suggest that there are six job dimensions that represent the most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective responses. They are:
• The work itself: The content of the work itself is a major source of satisfaction. This means the extent to which the job provides the individual with interesting tasks, opportunities for learning, and the chance to accept responsibility. Research made with reference to the job characteristics, and approach to the job design shows that feedback from the job itself and autonomy are two major job-related motivational factors. Some of the most important ingredients of job satisfaction include interesting and challenging work and a job that provides status.
• Compensation: Wages and salaries are significant, but a complex and multidimensional factor in job satisfaction.
Money not only helps people attain their basic needs, but also is instrumental in providing upper level need satisfaction. Employees often consider salary as a reflection of how management views their contribution to the organisation. Fringe benefits are also important, but they are not as influential. One reason undoubtedly is that most employees do not even know the benefits they are receiving.
Moreover, most tend to undervalue these benefits because they cannot see their practical value. Research made regarding compensation, indicates that if employees are allowed flexibility in choosing the type of benefits they prefer within a total package, called a flexible benefits plan, there is a significant increase in both benefit satisfaction and overall job satisfaction.
• Career growth: Promotional opportunities seem to have a varying effect on job satisfaction. This is because promotions take different forms and include a variety of rewards. For example, individuals who are promoted on the basis of seniority often experience job satisfaction but not as much as those who are promoted based on their performance.
• Supervision: Supervision is another moderately important source of job satisfaction. There are two dimensions of supervisory style that affects job satisfaction. One is employee-centeredness, which is measured by the degree to which a supervisor takes personal interest in the welfare of the employees. The other dimension is participation or influence, as illustrated by managers who allow their people to participate in decisions that affect their own jobs. This approach, generally, leads to higher job satisfaction. It is proved that a participative environment created by the supervisor has a more substantial effect on worker’s satisfaction than participation in a specific decision.
• Co-workers: Friendly, co-operative co-workers are a modest source of job satisfaction. The work group serves as a source of support, comfort, advice, and assistance to the individual. A ‘good’ work group makes the job more enjoyable.
On the other hand, if this factor is not considered with care, then it may have reverse effects, meaning thereby, that the people are difficult to get along with. This will have a negative effect on job satisfaction.
• Work environment: Work environment and working conditions are factors that have a modest effect on job satisfaction. If working conditions are good – clean, attractive surroundings- employees find it easier to carry out their job. Most people do not give working conditions a great deal of thought unless they are extremely bad.
But this is crucial because it has a direct effect on job satisfaction. On the contrary, if working conditions are given importance, productivity and accomplishment of objectives are enhanced.
In essence, if these six sutras are taken care of then certainly there will be job satisfaction and employees will be more productive and creative.
DR. RATNA PUROHIT
Send this article to Friends by